1 CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer union among them, are resolved to share a peaceful
future based on common values.
Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, the Union is founded on the indivisible, universal values of
human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy and the rule
of law. It places the individual at the heart of its activities, by establishing the citizenship of the Union
and by creating an area of freedom, security and justice.
The Union contributes to the preservation and to the development of these common values while
respecting the diversity of the cultures and traditions of the peoples of Europe as well as the
national identities of the Member States and the organisation of their public authorities at national,
regional and local levels; it seeks to promote balanced and sustainable development and ensures free
movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and the freedom of establishment.
To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights in the light of changes in
society, social progress and scientific and technological developments by making those rights more
visible in a Charter.
This Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Community and the Union and
the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and
international obligations common to the Member States, the Treaty on European Union, the Community
Treaties, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the
Social Charters adopted by the Community and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court
of Justice of the European Communities and of the European Court of Human Rights.
Enjoyment of these rights entails responsibilities and duties with regard to other persons, to the human
community and to future generations.
The Union therefore recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out hereafter.
3 CHAPTER I
4 Human dignity
5 Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.
6 Right to life
7 1. Everyone has the right to life.
8 2. No one shall be condemned to the death penalty, or executed.
9 Right to the integrity of the person
10 1. Everyone has the right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity.
11 2. In the fields of medicine and biology, the following must be respected in particular:
12 -the free and informed consent of the person concerned, according to the procedures laid down by
13 -the prohibition of eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at the selection of persons,
14 -the prohibition on making the human body and its parts as such a source of financial gain,
15 -the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings.
16 Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
17 No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
18 Prohibition of slavery and forced labour
19 1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
20 2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
21 3. Trafficking in human beings is prohibited.
22 CHAPTER II
23 Right to liberty and security
24 Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
25 Respect for private and family life
26 Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.
27 Protection of personal data
28 1. Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
29 2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the
person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to
data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified.
30 3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.
31 Right to marry and right to found a family
32 The right to marry and the right to found a family shall be guaranteed in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of these rights.
33 Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
34 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom
to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
35 2. The right to conscientious objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of this right.
36 Freedom of expression and information
37 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.
38 2. The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected.
39 Freedom of assembly and of association
40 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all levels,
in particular in political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of everyone to form and
to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.
41 2. Political parties at Union level contribute to expressing the political will of the citizens of the
43 Freedom of the arts and sciences
44 The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.
45 Article 14
46 Right to education
47 1. Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
48 2. This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory education.
49 3. The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in accordance with the national
laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.
50 Article 15
51 Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work
52 1. Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.
53 2. Every citizen of the Union has the freedom to seek employment, to work, to exercise the right of
establishment and to provide services in any Member State.
54 3. Nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are
entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union.
55 Freedom to conduct a business
56 The freedom to conduct a business in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices is recognised.
57 Right to property
58 1. Everyone has the right to own, use, dispose of and bequeath his or her lawfully acquired possessions. No one may be deprived of his or her possessions, except in the public interest and in
the cases and under the conditions provided for by law, subject to fair compensation being paid in good time for their loss. The use of property may be regulated by law in so far as is necessary for the general interest.
59 2. Intellectual property shall be protected.
60 Right to asylum
61 The right to asylum shall be guaranteed with due respect for the rules of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees and in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community.
62 Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition
63 1. Collective expulsions are prohibited.
64 2. No one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
65 CHAPTER III
66 Equality before the law
67 Everyone is equal before the law.
69 1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic
features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority,
property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
70 2. Within the scope of application of the Treaty establishing the European Community and of the
Treaty on European Union, and without prejudice to the special provisions of those Treaties, any
discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.
71 Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity
72 The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.
73 Equality between men and women
74 Equality between men and women must be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and pay.
75 The principle of equality shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of measures providing for specific advantages in favour of the under-represented sex.
76 The rights of the child
77 1. Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being. They may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity.
78 2. In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private institutions, the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.
79 3. Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and direct
contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests.
80 The rights of the elderly
81 The Union recognises and respects the rights of the elderly to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life.
82 Integration of persons with disabilities
83 The Union recognises and respects the right of persons with disabilities to benefit from measures designed to ensure their independence, social and occupational integration and participation in the life of the community.
84 CHAPTER IV
85 Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking
86 Workers or their representatives must, at the appropriate levels, be guaranteed information and consultation in good time in the cases and under the conditions provided for by Community law and national laws and practices.
87 Right of collective bargaining and action
88 Workers and employers, or their respective organisations, have, in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices, the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements at the appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts of interest, to take collective action to defend their interests, including strike action.
89 Right of access to placement services
90 Everyone has the right of access to a free placement service.
91 Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal
92 Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices.
93 Fair and just working conditions
94 1. Every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity.
95 2. Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave.
96 Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work
97 The employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations. Young people admitted to work must have working conditions appropriate to their age and be protected
against economic exploitation and any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to interfere with their education.
98 Family and professional life
99 1. The family shall enjoy legal, economic and social protection.
100 2. To reconcile family and professional life, everyone shall have the right to protection from dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid maternity leave and to parental leave following the birth or adoption of a child.
101 Social security and social assistance
102 1. The Union recognises and respects the entitlement to social security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, dependency or old age, and in the case of loss of employment, in accordance with the rules laid down by Community law and national laws and practices.
103 2. Everyone residing and moving legally within the European Union is entitled to social security benefits and social advantages in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices.
104 3. In order to combat social exclusion and poverty, the Union recognises and respects the right to social and housing assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient
resources, in accordance with the rules laid down by Community law and national laws and practices.
105 Health care
106 Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established by national laws and practices. A high level of human
health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities.
107 Access to services of general economic interest
108 The Union recognises and respects access to services of general economic interest as provided for in national laws and practices, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, in order to promote the social and territorial cohesion of the Union.
109 Environmental protection
110 A high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment must be integrated into the policies of the Union and ensured in accordance with the principle of sustainable development.
111 Consumer protection
112 Union policies shall ensure a high level of consumer protection.
113 CHAPTER V
114 Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament
115 1. Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the
European Parliament in the Member State in which he or she resides, under the same conditions as nationals of that State.
116 2. Members of the European Parliament shall be elected by direct universal suffrage in a free and secret ballot.
117 Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections
118 Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections in the Member State in which he or she resides under the same conditions as nationals of that State.
119 Right to good administration
120 1. Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the institutions and bodies of the Union.
121 2. This right includes:
122 -the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken;
123 -the right of every person to have access to his or her file, while respecting the legitimate interests of confidentiality and of professional and business secrecy;
124 -the obligation of the administration to give reasons for its decisions.
125 3. Every person has the right to have the Community make good any damage caused by its institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member States.
126 4. Every person may write to the institutions of the Union in one of the languages of the Treaties and must have an answer in the same language.
127 Right of access to documents
128 Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, has a right of access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents.
130 Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to refer to the Ombudsman of the Union cases of maladministration in the activities of the Community institutions or bodies, with the exception of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance acting in their judicial role.
131 Right to petition
132 Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to petition the European Parliament.
133 Freedom of movement and of residence
134 1. Every citizen of the Union has the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States.
135 2. Freedom of movement and residence may be granted, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, to nationals of third countries legally resident in the territory of a Member State.
136 Diplomatic and consular protection
137 Every citizen of the Union shall, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which he or she is a national is not represented, be entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any Member State, on the same conditions as the nationals of that Member State.
138 CHAPTER VI
139 Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial
140 Everyone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article. Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the possibility of being advised, defended and represented. Legal aid shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources in so far as such aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice.
141 Presumption of innocence and right of defence
142 1. Everyone who has been charged shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
143 2. Respect for the rights of the defence of anyone who has been charged shall be guaranteed.
144 Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties
145 1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national law or international law at the time when it was
committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of a criminal offence, the law provides for a lighter penalty, that penalty shall be applicable.
146 2. This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles recognised by the community of nations.
147 3. The severity of penalties must not be disproportionate to the criminal offence.
148 Right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same criminal offence
149 No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an offence for which he
or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted within the Union in accordance with the law.
150 CHAPTER VII
152 1. The provisions of this Charter are addressed to the institutions and bodies of the Union with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity and to the Member States only when they are implementing Union law. They shall therefore respect the rights, observe the principles and promote the application thereof in accordance with their respective powers.
153 2. This Charter does not establish any new power or task for the Community or the Union, or modify powers and tasks defined by the Treaties.
154 Scope of guaranteed rights
155 1. Any limitation on the exercise of the rights and freedoms recognised by this Charter must be provided for by law and respect the essence of those rights and freedoms. Subject to the principle of proportionality, limitations may be made only if they are necessary and genuinely meet objectives of general interest recognised by the Union or the need to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
156 2. Rights recognised by this Charter which are based on the Community Treaties or the Treaty on European Union shall be exercised under the conditions and within the limits defined by those Treaties.
157 3. In so far as this Charter contains rights which correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the meaning and scope of those rights shall be the same as those laid down by the said Convention. This provision shall not prevent Union law providing more extensive protection.
158 Level of protection
159 Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of application, by Union law and international law and by international agreements to which the Union, the Community or all the Member States are party, including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' constitutions.
160 Prohibition of abuse of rightsNothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as implying any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognised in this Charter or at their
limitation to a greater extent than is provided for herein.